Regulation of gene expression
Gene expression is the natural procedure in which the genetic codes also called the nucleotide sequence is directly used for the synthesis of the proteins. It helps in the production of cell structure. The genes that are used for coding the amino acids of the cell are known as the structural proteins.
There are two main stages of the gene expression.
In the process, the message RNA is produced with the help of the enzymes RNA polymerase and the result is the molecules of mRNA.
For the direct protein synthesis, the mRNA is used and it leads to the post translational processing of protein molecules.
There are some genes that are related to the production of the other types of RNA that helps in gene expressions like ribosomal RNA and transfer RNA.
There are different components involved in the structure of gene
- Introns are the part of the gene that is not coded for the amino acids. Before the process of translation, such parts are removed from mRNA
- Exons help in the determination of the amino acid sequence for the protein synthesis. In the final mature form of mRNA, these parts of the gene are represented.
Control regions of genes
- For transcription, there is a start site
- In the beginning of the transcription process, the nucleotide sequence is attached with the promoter. It helps in controlling the transcription of the genes instead of being transcribed into the mRNA.
- There are a few transcriptions factors that will bind with the enhancer region on the strands. It will help to increase the rate of the transcription process. From the coding sequence, there are thousands of nucleotides in this site and they often fall in the part in Introns. There are few enhancers that are conditional and so they will only work in the presence of special transcription factors.
- To depress the rate of the transcription there are a few factors that will bind at the end of the strand and are called silencers.
The label of the cellular process is known as gene regulation that helps to manage the gene expression and control’s its rate. The interactions between the RNA molecules, genes and proteins are very complex and there are other components of expressions that help to determine where the specific gene will be activated and when. It helps to control the production of protein products.
Gene regulation mechanism is
- The rate of transcription is regulated and it is regarded as the most economical way of regulation
- The rates of translation is regulated
- Process of RNA molecule regulation includes the alternatives that cause splicing and leads to the production of more proteins from single gene
- The stability of mRNA molecule will be regulated.
Some genes will be continuously expressed and they are involved in the basic metabolic functions of the proteins. The process of cell differentiation will be expressed through the genes regulation process.