Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
Prokaryotes does not contains an organized nucleus. Their DNA is the kind of floating around its cell. The DNA is clumped up, but not inside of the nucleus.
Prokaryotes are single cell organisms.
Most prokaryotes are bacteria and it is important to know that bacteria can do some amazing things. Although bacteria are very simple organisms, they can be found everywhere on the planet. It is also thinked by some scientists that they may also be found on some of other planets, well its a matter of research. Some of the places where these bacteria can be seen in our everyday life are a cup of natural yogurt, our intestines or a bakery. Prokaryotes are proved to be the simplest of simple organisms because of the following mentioned reasons :
=> Prokaryotes have not any organized nucleus. DNA is clumped in an area but there is no nucleus with a membrane.
=> Prokaryotes does not contains usual organelles. They contains probably ribosomes inside their cells but ribosomes are not considered as organelles, technically. There is not any mitochondria, no chloroplasts, no nucleus.
=> Prokaryotes are generally very small in size because they dont have most elements like other cells
=> Prokaryotes don’t have meiosis or mitosis like other cells.
Average prokaryote cell by LadyofHats
- Prokaryotic cells lack well defined nucleus and has simplified internal organization.
- It consist of single closed compartment of cytosol and bounded by the plasma membrane.
- The genetic material DNA is condensed into the central region of cell.Most of or all of the genetic informations are stored in the single condensed central DNA.It is often referred as“incipient nucleus or nucleoid”.
- The cell wall is made up of peptidoglycan,a complex of protein and oligosaccharides.
- In addition to chromosome certain bacteria may contain a circular DNA called“plasmid”.In some bacteria it is responsible for antibiotic resistance.
- Pro-False,Karyote-nucleus => False nucleus.
Eukaryotes are cells that you think of when a “classic cell” comes in your mind. Eukaryotes are basically cells that can do anything. These are the cells that helped organisms advance to the new levels of specialization beyond our imagination.
Eukaryotic cells have an organized nucleus with a clear nuclear envelope. They have brain for a cell. They have a separate discreet area where they use to keep their DNA. It is also said that they contain a true nucleus, in other way.
Eukaryotic cells usually have their organelles. They might contain mitochondria, may be have a chloroplast, or some endoplasmic reticulum. They contains parts that works to make the cell a self sufficient organism.
Although, eukaryotic cells are limited in size by physics of diffusion, they can get very large. There are also some extreme examples known as plasmodial slime that can extend upto a meter wide. This cell is multinucleated (multiple nuclei) and it gets huge. Usually, eukaryotic cells are about couple of hundred times of the size of a prokaryotic cell.
Eukaryotic cells have some extra stuff going on and also some extra parts attached to them. Since they have organized DNA and organelles, they are very much able to create parts. An example of this is flagellum (a tail-like structure that helps it to move). They could also create the cilia (cilia are little hairs thats helps scoot a cell through the water).
Animal cell structure by LadyofHats
- Eukaryotic cells have more complicated internal structures includes well defined membrane limited nucleus Eg: Fungi,Plants and Animals.
- It comprise of all members of plant,fungi and animal kingdom as well as unicellular fungus yeast and protozoans.
- Eukaryotic cells have internal membrane bound nucleus.
- Largest organelle of eukaryotic cell is nucleus and it consist of most of the genetic cellular DNA in the form of long linear“chromosomes”.
- Total DNA in the chromosome = Genome of an organism.
- In addition mitochondria acts as a energy house of the cell,proteins and lipids are produced by rough and smooth Endoplasmic reticula.
- “Chloroplast”act as site of photosynthesis.Vacuoles store nutrients as well as waste products.