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Biology is a science of nature that deals with life and living organisms, comprising of life structure, function, evolution, growth, distribution and taxonomy.

The modern biology is wide and eclectic consisting of various branches and disciplines. There are certain concepts governing research and study making it diverse fields.

The cell is recognized as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity, while evolution deals with creation of species and their synthesis.


The foundations of modern biology include:

Cell theory propounds that the fundamental unit of life is cell, and living things are formed of one or more cells. New cell are formed from other cells through a process called cell division.

Also, the basic of flow of energy happens in cells which are part of metabolism functions through this process.

The cells contains information of hereditary (DNA), transferred from one cell to the other through Cell Division.

Evolution: the concept of central organization is that life develops and changes by evolution process, that there is a common origin in life formations.

Evolution theory states that organisms (Both living and none living), came emanated from ancestor that are common or gene pool of ancestral.

There is now a wide study on evolution that explains the great variations on Earth and in life.

Species evolution history explains how the main features of different species from where it emanated couples with genealogical connection to other species which is recognized as Phylogeny.


Genetics:  genes are the basic unit of inheritance in all living organisms.

They are connected to part of DNA which constitutes the formation of an organism in various ways. The basic machinery of bacteria and animals are related which copy and translates DNA into Proteins. The DNA genes are transcribed to RNA gene version, while ribosome changes RNA to protein with an amino acid sequence.


Homeostasis:this is defined as the ability of a system to control the inner environment and make sure that stable condition is maintained through dynamic equilibrium.

Living organism performs homeostasis, either unicellular or multi cellular.


Energy:   All organisms that survive are dependent on energy input continuously.

The reaction of its chemical controls its structure and function causing its extraction of energy from food substance and are changed to aid the formation of new cells and maintain the new cells.

Mitochondria is considered as “Power house of the Cell” which produce energy in the form of ATP(Adenosine  Tri Phosphate).

Autotrophy is introduced to the ecosystem via the organisms and most of the organisms produce their own energy(especially plants) from sunlight with the help of Chloroplast.


The fields under biology include:

  • Biochemistry: study of material substance making up life
  • Botany: study of plants and agriculture
  • Cell biology: study of basic cell units of living organism
  • Molecular Biology: Studying the functions of organelles at molecular level.(Eg. Protein synthesis through Transcription and Translation)
  • Ecology; study of interactions of organisms with environment
  • Genetics: the study of heredity and genes
  • Physiology: studying organism functions and parts
  • Zoology: study of animal and their behavior


The above fields are related, you might need to have an idea in a field that is different from your area of study.


Benefits of studying Biology

It helps our living based on different functions and essentials. Realizing the fact that biology deals with the study of life, including plants and animals, giving us vibrant reasons.

We study plants because of its usefulness to human life basically for feeding purpose like vegetables, grains and others. Also serves as medicine for curative function of life, shelter and by products.

Studying animals physiology and functions is also useful for scientific research thereby pave way for disease free world. 

Learning Biology is a foundation for students studying medical sciences and biological reasearch.

Biology as a whole is one of the modern forms life science, consisting of Medical and healthcare research.

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